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【中学英語】みんながつまずく基本の助動詞・比較級の一覧と共に理解する

英語学習
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ココでつまずく人が多い気がする助動詞と比較級

more/most を使いポイント助動詞の似た意味の書き換えなど。良く学校の先生がテストに出しそうなものをまとめてみました。

基本が分かっていればすぐに理解できる単元だともいます。

最上級には 「THE」を付けることを忘れないで!

英語力はさらに上げたい人へ:【英語学習】時と条件を表す単語が知りたい人の為の一覧です

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1.助動詞とは?

助動詞 Modal verb
現在形 過去形 書き換え
can could be able to
may might /
must / have to
have to had to must
need / have to
shall should had better (should より強い)
/ had better should
will would be going to
/ used to /

 Point!

助動詞で一番大事なのはそれぞれの意味と使い方です。

  • 助動詞を使った時には動詞は必ず原形を置く。
  • 意味が同じで書き換えられるようにしとく。
  1. Must = Have to
  2. Must not + 動詞の原形 = Do not + 動詞の原形
  3. Will + 動詞の原形 = Be going to + 動詞の原形
  4. Can + 動詞の原形 = Be able to + 動詞の原形

他にも依頼を表す際に使われる、「~してくれませんか?」

  1. can you ~?
  2. could you ~?
  3. will you ~?
  4. would you ~?

4つ全部同じ意味なので、書き換えできますし、どれを使っても中学生レベルであれば問題ありません。

みんながよく分からなくなってしまうのが、

  • must be (~に違いない)
  • Shall I ~? (私が~しましょうか?)
  • Shall we ~? (一緒に~しませんか?)

この3つの意味を覚えられない人が多いので、意識して覚えましょう。

2.比較(~er/~est)

形容詞 (Adjective) 比較級 (Comparative) 最上級 (Superlative)
angry angrier angriest
bad worse worst
big bigger biggest
bitter bitterer bitterest
black blacker blackest
bland blander blandest
bloody bloodier bloodiest
blue bluer bluest
bold bolder boldest
bossy bossier bossiest
brave braver bravest
brief briefer briefest
bright brighter brightest
broad broader broadest
busy busier busiest
calm calmer calmest
cheap cheaper cheapest
chewy chewier chewiest
chubby chubbier chubbiest
classy classier classiest
clean cleaner cleanest
clear clear clearest
clever cleverer cleverest
close closer closest
cloudy cloudier cloudiest
clumsy clumsier clumsiest
coarse coarser coarsest
cold colder coldest
cool cooler coolest
crazy crazier craziest
creamy creamier creamiest
creepy creepier creepiest
crispy crispier crispiest
cruel crueller cruellest
crunchy crunchier crunchiest
curly curly curliest
curvy curvier curviest
cute cuter cutest
damp damper dampest
dark darker darkest
deadly deadlier deadliest
deep deeper deepest
dense denser densest
dirty dirtier dirtiest
dry drier driest
dull duller dullest
dumb dumber dumbest
dusty dustier dustiest
early earlier earliest
easy easier easiest
faint fainter faintest
fair fairer fairest
fancy fancier fanciest
far further/farther furthest/farthest
fast faster fastest
fat fatter fattest
few fewer fewest
fierce fiercer fiercest
filthy filthier filthiest
fine finer finest
firm firmer firmest
fit fitter fittest
flaky flakier flakiest
flat flatter flattest
fresh fresher freshest
friendly friendlier friendliest
full fuller fullest
funny funnier funniest
gentle gentler gentlest
gloomy gloomier gloomiest
good better best
grand grander grandest
grave graver gravest
greasy greasier greasiest
great greater greatest
greedy greedier greediest
gross grosser grossest
guilty guilter guiltiest
hairy hairier hairiest
handy handier handiest
happy happier happiest
hard harder hardest
harsh harsher harshest
healthy healthier healthiest
heavy heavier heaviest
high higher highest
hip hipper hippest
hot hotter hottest
humble humbler humblest
hungry hungrier hungriest
icy icier iciest
itchy itchier itchiest
juicy juicier juiciest
kind kinder kindest
large larger largest
late later latest
lazy lazier laziest
light lighter lightest
likely likelier likeliest
little littler littlest
lively livelier liveliest
lonely lonlier loneliest
long longer longest
loud louder loudest
lovely lovelier loveliest
low lower lowest
mad madder maddest
mean meaner meanest
messy messier messiest
mild milder mildest
moist moister moistest
narrow narrower narrowest
nasty nastier nastiest
naughty naughtier naughtiest
near nearer nearest
neat neater neatest
needy needier neediest
new newer newest
nice nicer nicest
noisy noisier noisiest
odd odder oddest
oily oilier oiliest
old older/elder oldest/eldest
plain plainer plainest
polite politer politest
poor poorer poorest
pretty prettier prettiest
proud prouder proudest
pure purer purest
quick quicker quickest
quiet quieter quietest
rare rarer rarest
raw rawer rawest
rich richer richest
ripe riper ripest
risky riskier riskiest
roomy roomier roomiest
rough rougher roughest
rude ruder rudest
rusty rustier rustiest
sad sadder saddest
safe safer safest
salty saltier saltiest
sane saner sanest
scary scarier scariest
shallow shallower shallowest
sharp sharper sharpest
shiny shinier shiniest
short shorter shortest
shy shyer shyest
silly sillier silliest
simple simpler simplest
sincere sincerer sincerest
skinny skinnier skinniest
sleepy sleepier sleepiest
slim slimmer slimmest
slimy slimier slimiest
slow slower slowest
small smaller smallest
smart smarter smartest
smelly smellier smelliest
smoky smokier smokiest
smooth smoother smoothest
soft softer softest
soon sooner soonest
sore sorer sorest
sorry sorrier sorriest
sour sourer sourest
spicy spicier spiciest
steep steeper steepest
stingy stingier stingiest
strange stranger strangest
strict stricter strictest
strong stronger strongest
sunny sunnier sunniest
sweaty sweatier sweatiest
sweet sweeter sweetest
tall taller tallest
tan tanner tannest
tasty tastier tastiest
thick thicker thickest
thin thinner thinnest
thirsty thirstier thirstiest
tiny tinier tiniest
tough tougher toughest
ugly uglier ugliest
warm warmer warmest
weak weaker weakest
wealthy wealthier wealthiest
weird weirder weirdest
wet wetter wettest
wide wider widest
wild wilder wildest
windy windier windiest
wise wiser wisest
worldly worldlier worldliest
worthy worthier worthiest
young younger youngest

Point!

このリストには難しい形容詞ものっているので、余計なものは無視で大丈夫。
形容詞やその比較級・最上級はその都度覚えていけばいいのです。

一気に覚えようとせずに、意味を理解しながらコツコツ地道に努力をしましょう。

比較級の作り方

  • 形容詞 + er + than

最上級の作り方

  • the + 形容詞 + est + than

3.比較(more/most)

形容詞 (Adjective) 比較級 (Comparative) 最上級 (Superlative)
ancient more ancient most ancient
beautiful more beautiful most beautiful
brilliant more brilliant most brilliant
careful more careful most careful
careless more careless most careless
cheerful more cheerful most cheerful
comfortable more comfortable most comfortable
dangerous more dangerous most dangerous
delightful more delightful most delightful
difficult more difficult most difficult
enjoyable more enjoyable most enjoyable
expensive more expensive most expensive
foolish more foolish most foolish
forgetful more forgetful most forgetful
frightening more frightening most frightening
generous more generous most generous
handsome more handsome most handsome
helpful more helpful most helpful
ignorant more ignorant most ignorant
important more important most important
intelligent more intelligent most intelligent
interesting more interesting most interesting
pleasant more pleasant most pleasant
powerful more powerful most powerful
prosperous more prosperous most prosperous
sensible more sensible most sensible
terrible more terrible most terrible
thoughtful more thoughtful most thoughtful
unusual more unusual most unusual
useful more useful most useful
valuable more valuable most valuable
wonderful more wonderful most wonderful

Point!

中学生に知っといてほしいのは、

  • beautiful
  • careful
  • careless
  • comfortable
  • dangerous
  • difficult
  • helpful
  • important
  • interesting
  • wonderful

などなどです。これらの形容詞にはmore/most をつけましょう。

比較級の作り方

  • more + 形容詞 + than

最上級の作り方

  • the + most + 形容詞

比較を極めたい人へ:【英語学習】高校生レベルの文法~比較の熟語表現を極める~

4.まとめ

高校・中学英語の文法まとめました。

こちらも併せて確認してみましょう~

  1. 【中学生の不定詞】名詞的用法・副詞的用法・形容詞的用法が分からない!
  2. 【中学英語】みんながつまずく基本の助動詞・比較級の一覧と共に理解する
  3. 【中学英語・現在完了】Present perfectは時制を表す4つ目の言い回しに過ぎない。
  4. 【高校英語・関係詞】高校生レベル~関係代名詞VS関係副詞~
  5. 【高校英語・比較】高校生レベルの文法~比較の熟語表現を極める~
  6. 【高校英語・助動詞】中学英語からの発展レベルに挑戦

 

Reference:

List of comparative superlative and adjectives from A to Z: Easy pace learning

Comparative superlative adjectives list from A to Z
list of comparative superlative and adjectives from A to Z. Learning English grammar

Comparatives and superlatives using ‘more’ and ‘most’: Meg.com

Comparatives and superlatives using 'more' and 'most'
A comprehensive site for free English courses and exercises.
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